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How to Perform the Rituals of Hajj and Umrah

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Post How to Perform the Rituals of Hajj and Umrah   Thu Sep 09, 2010 6:21 pm


be to Allah, Lord of the Universe. May peace and blessings be upon
Muhammad, the last of the prophets and messengers, and upon his family
and esteemed companions. Hajj is one of the best forms of worship and
is one of the most sublime deeds because it is one of the pillars of
Islam that Allah sent Muhammad-may the peace and blessings of Allah be
upon him-with. A servant's religion is incomplete without it. A form of
worship is only acceptable when the following is true.

devotes it to Allah alone, with a desire for the Hereafter. It cannot
be done with the intention of being seen among people or for worldly

One follows the Prophet's example, in words and deeds. This cannot be accomplished except by gaining knowledge of the Sunnah.

Forms of Pilgrimage

There are three forms of Hajj: Tamattu', Ifraad and Qiran.

A pilgrim wears Ihram for Umrah only during the months of Hajj, which
means when a pilgrim reaches Makkah, he/she makes Tawaf and Sa'yi for
Umrah. Then shaves or clips the hair. On the day of Tarwiya, which is
the eighth of Dhul-Hijja, a pilgrim puts on his Ihram for Hajj only and
carries out all of its requirements.

A pilgrim wears Ihram for Hajj only. When he reaches Makkah, he
performs Tawaf for his arrival and Sa'yi for Hajj. He doesn't shave or
clip his hair as he doesn't disengage from Ihram. Instead, he remains
in Ihram till after he stones Jamrah Al-Aqaba on the Eid day. It is
permissible for him to postpone his Sa'yi for Hajj until after his
Tawaf for Hajj.

A pilgrim wears Ihram for both Umrah and Hajj or he wears Ihram first
for Umrah, then makes intentions for Hajj before his Tawaf for Hajj.
The obligations on one performing Ifraad are the same as those on one
performing Qiran, except that the latter must slaughter whereas the
former is not obligated to do so. The best of the three forms is
Tamattu'. It is the form that the prophet-may the peace and blessings
of Allah be upon him encouraged his followers to perform.
if a pilgrim makes intentions to perform Qiran or Ifraad he is allowed
to change his intentions to Tamattu'; he can do this even after he has
performed Tawaf and Sa'yi.

the Prophet - may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him-
performed Tawaf and Sa'yi during the year of the Farewell Hajj with his
companions, he ordered all those who hadn't brought sacrificial animals
to change their intentions for Hajj to intentions for Umrah. cut their
hair, and disengage from Ihram till Hajj. He said, " If I hadn't
brought the sacrificial animal, I'd have done what I've ordered you to

The Umrah

a pilgrim wishes to be ritually pure for Umrah, he should shed his
clothing and bathe as he would after sexual defilement, if convenient.
He should perfume his head and beard with the best oil he can find.
There is no harm in what remains of it after Ihram.

for Ihram is Sunnah for both men and women, including menstruating
women and those experiencing postnatal bleeding. After bathing and
preparing himself, a. pilgrim, other than those menstruating or
experiencing post- natal bleeding, prays the obligatory prayer, if it
is time. Otherwise, he makes his intention by praying the two Sunnah
Rakass whichare made each time Wudhu is performed.

he finishes his prayer he should say: "Here I am for Umrah--here I am,
Oh Allah, here I am. Here I am. You have no partner. Here I am. Surely
all praise, grace and dominion is yours, and you have no
partner." [Talbeeyah]. A man raises his voice when saying this and a woman says it so that only one beside her may hear her.

in Ihram should say the Talbeeyah as often as possible, especially when
times and places change. For example: when descending or ascending
during travel or when day or night approach. He should also ask Allah
for His pleasure, for Heaven and seek refuge in Allah's mercy from

should say the Talbeeyah during Umrah, starting from the time he puts
on his Ihram till he starts Tawaf. During Hajj he should say it
starting from the time he puts on his Ihram till he starts to stone
Al- Aqaba on the Eid day.

a pilgrim enters the Holy Mosque he puts forth his right foot first and
says: "In the name of Allah, may peace and blessings be upon the
Messenger of Allah. Oh Allah, forgive me my sins and open to me the
doors of Your mercy. I seek refuge in Allah the Almighty and in His
Eminent Face and in His Eternal Dominion from the accursed Satan." He
approaches the Black Stone, touches it with his right hand and kisses
it. If this isn't possible, he should face the Black Stone and point to
it. It is best not to push and shove, causing harm and being harmed by
other people.

touching the Stone, a pilgrim should say the following: "In the name of
Allah, Allah is the greatest. Oh, Allah, with faith in you, belief in
Your book, loyalty to you, compliance to the way of your Prophet
Muhammad--may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him."

pilgrim must walk, keeping the Ka'bah on his left. When he reaches the
Rukn Al Yamani he should touch, but not kiss it, and say: " Our Lord,
grant us good in this life and good in the hereafter and save us from
the punishment of the Hell-fire. Oh Allah, I beg of You for forgiveness
and health in this life and in the Hereafter." Each time he passes the
Black Stone he should say: "Allah is the Greatest."

the remainder of his Tawaf he may say what he pleases of supplications,
mentioning Allah, and recitation of Quran. This is because Tawaf,
Sa'yi, and Stoning the Jamrah have been devised for the purpose of
mentioning Allah. During this Tawaf it is necessary for a man to do two

from the beginning of Tawaf until the end. Al-ldhtebaa' means placing
the middle of one's Reda' under his right arm and the ends of it over
his left shoulder. When he is finished performing Tawaf, he may return
his Reda' to its original state because the time for Idhtebaa' is only
during Tawaf.

during the first three circuits. Al-Raml means speeding up one's pace
with small steps. A pilgrim should walk at a normal pace during his
last four circuits. When he completes seven circuits of Tawaf, he
approaches Maqam Ibrahim and recites: "And take ye the station of
Abraham as a place of Prayer" Chapter 2, Verse 125 [2:125]. He prays
two short Rakaas, as close as conveniently possible, behind Maqam
Ibrahim. During the first Rakaa he recites Surah Al-Kafirun [Chapter
109] and during the second one Surah Al- lkhlas[Chapter 112]. When he
completes the two Rakaas he should return to the Black Stone and touch
it, if convenient. He goes out to the Mesa'a and when he nears As-Safaa
he recites: " Verily As- Safaa and Al-Marwah are among the shrines of
Allah" [2:158].
ascends As-Safaa until he is able to see the Ka'bah. Facing the Ka'bah
and raising his hands, he praises Allah and makes any supplications he
chooses. The Prophet--may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon
him--prayed thus: "There is no Deity but Allah alone," three times,
supplicating in between.

descends As-Safaa and heads for Al- Marwah at a normal pace until he
reaches the green marker. He should then run fast until the next green
marker. He continues toward Al- Marwah at a normal pace. When he
reaches it, he ascends it, faces the Qibla, raises his hands and
repeats what he said on As-Safaa. He descends Al-Marwah heading towards
As-Safaa, taking care to walk where walking is designated, and run
where running is designated.

continues this procedure until he completes seven laps. Going from
As-Safaa to Al-Marwah is a lap and returning is another lap. During his
Sa'yi he may recite what he wills of supplications, recitation of
Qur'an, and mentioning Allah.

completion of Sa'yi he shaves his head. A woman clips her hair the
length of a finger tip. Shaving is preferable, except when Hajj is near
and there isn't sufficient time for hair to grow back. In this case
it's best to clip so that hair will remain for shaving during Hajj.
With that, Umrah is completed. and a pilgrim is free to dress in other
clothing, wear perfume and engage in marital relations, etc.

The Hajj

the forenoon of the eighth day of Dhul-Hijja, a pilgrim purifies
himself once again by bathing as he did before Umrah in the place in
which he is staying, if convenient. He puts on his Ihram and says: "
Here I am for Hajj. Here I am, oh Allah, here I am. Here I am. You have
no partner. Here I am. Surely all praise, grace and dominion is yours,
and you have no partners."

he fears that something will prevent him from completing his Hajj he
should make a condition when he makes his intentions, saying: " If I am
prevented by any obstacle my place is wherever I am held up." If he has
no such fear, he doesn't make this condition.

pilgrim goes to Mina and there prays Dhuhr, Asr, Magrib, Isha and Fajr,
shortening his four unit prayers so as to make them two units each,
without combining them.

the sun rises, he goes to Arafah and there prays Dhuhr and Asr combined
at the time of Dhuhr, making each one two units. He remains in Namira
Mosque until sunset if possible. He remembers Allah and makes as many
supplications as possible while facing the Qibla. The Prophet-may the
peace and blessing of Allah be upon him-prayed thus: "There is no Deity
but Allah alone. He has no partner. All dominion and praise are His and
He is powerful over all things.

he grows weary it is permissible for him to engage in beneficial
conversation with his companions or reading what he can find of
beneficial books, especially those concerning Allah's grace and
abundant gifts. This will strengthen his hope in Allah. He should then
return to his supplications and be sure to spend the end of the day
deep in supplication because the best of supplication is the
supplication of the day of Arafah.

sunset he goes from Arafah to Muzdalifah and there prays Magrib, Isha,
and Fajr. If he is tired or has little water, it is permissible for him
to combine Magrib and Isha. If he fears that he will not reach
Muzdalifah until after midnight, he should pray before he reaches it
for it is not permissible to delay prayer until after midnight. He
remains there, in Muzdalifah, making supplications and remembering
Allah till just before sunrise.

he is weak and cannot handle the crowd during Ar-Ramy, it is
permissible for him to go to Mina at the end of the night to stone the
Jamrah before the arrival of the crowd. Near sunrise, a pilgrim goes
Muzdalifah to Mina. Upon reaching it he does the following:

throws seven consecutive pebbles at Jamrah Al-Aqaba which is the
closest monument to Makkah, saying: "Allah is the Greatest," as he
throws each pebble.

slaughters the sacrificial animal, eats some of it, and gives some to
the poor. Slaughter is obligatory on the Mutamati and Qiran.

He shaves or clips his hair; shaving is preferable. A woman clips her hair the length of a finger-tip.
These three should be done in the above order if convenient, but there is no restriction if one precedes another.
that, one is allowed to come out of Ihram. He can wear other clothing
and do everything that was lawful before Ihram except engaging in
marital relations. He goes to Makkah to perform Tawaf Al-lfadha and
Sa'yi, also for Hajj. It is Sunnah to put perfume on before going to

the completion of this Tawaf and Sa'yi, a pilgrim is allowed to do
everything that was lawful before Ihram, including engaging in marital
relations. After performing Tawaf and Sa'yi, he returns to Mina to
spend the nights of the eleventh and twelfth days there.

stones the three Jamrah in the afternoon of both the eleventh and
twelfth days. He starts with the first Jamrah, which is furthest from
Makkah, then the middle one, and lastly Jamrah Al-Aqaba. Each one
should be stoned with seven consecutive pebbles accompanied by Takbeer.
He stops after the first and middle Jamrah to make supplications facing
the Qibla. It is not permissible to stone before noon on these two
days. It is best to walk to the Jamrah, but riding is permissible.

he is in a hurry after stoning on the twelfth day, he leaves Mina
before sunset. But if he wishes to prolong his stay, which is best, he
spends the night of the thirteenth in Mina and stones that afternoon in
the same
manner as on the twelfth day.

he is ready to return to his country, he makes Tawaf Al-Wadaa, which is
seven circuits around the Ka'bah. Menstruating women and women
experiencing postnatal discharge are not obligated to perform
Tawaf Al -Wadaa.

Visiting The Prophet's Mosque

A pilgrim goes to Madina before or after Hajj with the intention of
visiting the Prophet's mosque and praying in it. Prayer there is better
than a thousand prayers elsewhere except in the Holy Mosque in Makkah.

2. Upon reaching the mosque he prays two Rakaas of salutation or performs any obligatory prayer that is due.

He goes to the grave of the Prophet -may the peace and blessings of
Allah be upon him - and he stands before it. He greets him saying the
"May the peace, mercy, and blessings of Allah be upon you, oh Prophet.
May Allah grant you a good reward on behalf of your people. " He takes
a step or two to his right to position himself before Abu-Bakr and
greets him saying : "May the peace, mercy, and blessing of Allah be
upon you. oh Abu-Bakr, Caliph of the Messenger of Allah. May Allah be
pleased with you and grant you a good reward on behalf of Muhammad's
people." Then he takes a step or two to his right to position himself
before Umar and greets him saying: " May the peace, mercy and blessings
of Allah be upon you, oh Umar, Prince of the believers. May Allah be
pleased with you and grant you a good reward on behalf of Muhammad's

4. In a state of purity, he goes to pray in Qubaa Mosque.
He goes to Al-Baqee to visit Uthman's grave- may Allah be pleased with
him. He stands before it and greets him saying: "May the peace, mercy
and blessing of Allah be upon you, oh Uthman- Prince of the believers.
May Allah be pleased with you and grant you a good reward on behalf of
Muhammad's people." He greets any other Muslims in Al-Baqee.

He goes to Uhud and visits the grave of Hamza- may Allah be pleased
with him- and the other martyrs there with him. He greets them and
preys to Allah to grant them forgiveness, mercy, and pleasure.


The following is incumbent upon the Muhrim for Hajj or Umrah:

1. That he be committed to Allah's religious obligations upon him such as prayer in its time (in congregation for men).

That he avoids what Allah has prohibited such as obscenity, inequity,
and disobedience. if anyone undertakes Hajj therein. Let there be no
obscenity, nor wickedness, nor wrangling during Hajj ~ [2:197].

3. That he avoids harming the Muslims with words or actions within the Masha'ir or elsewhere.
4. That he avoids all of the restrictions of Ihram:<blockquote>
He shouldn't cause the loss of any of his hair or nails. A prick by a
thorn and the like is unobjectionable, even if there is bleeding.

He shouldn't perfume himself, his clothing, his food or his drink after
entering Ihram. He should also abstain from cleansing himself with
scented soap. There is no harm in what remains of the effect of perfume
used prior to Ihram.

c. He shouldn't touch, kiss, etc. his spouse out of passion and, even worse, shouldn't have sexual intercourse.
d. He shouldn't be wed or propose to a woman for himself or others.
e. He shouldn't wear gloves, although there is no harm in wrapping the hands in cloth. This ruling goes for both men and women.</blockquote>
The following pertains specifically to men:<blockquote>

He cannot cover his head with something that touches it, although there
is no harm in the use of an umbrella, the roof of a car or tent for
shade. There is also no harm in carrying his baggage atop his head.

He cannot wear a shirt, turban, hooded cloak trousers, or shoes. Only
if he is unable to obtain an Ezar or sandals can he wear trousers or

c. He cannot wear anything with the same qualities of the above mentioned such as an Abea', Qubaa, hat, undershirt, etc.</blockquote>
is permissible for him to wear sandals, rings, glasses, a hearing aid.
a watch, worn on his wrist or hung from his neck, or a speech aid. It
is permissible for him to cleanse himself with unscented cleansers and
to wash and scratch his head and body, even if some of his hair falls
unintentionally. In such a case there is no obligation on him because
of it.

woman cannot wear a Niqab or Burqa'. The Sunnah is for her to uncover
her face except if men not related to her might see her, in which case
it is obligatory for her to cover her face during Ihram and otherwise.
Allah is the giver of success. May His blessings be upon our Prophet
Muhammad and all of his family and companions.

By the needy before Allah, Muhammad As-Salih Al-Uthaimeen


Abaya' cloak-like, woolen wrap.
Abu Bakr first Muslim Caliph.
Al-Baqee' a place in Madina.
Al-ldhtebaa placing the middle of the Reda' under the right arm and the ends ofit over the left shoulder during Tawaf.
Al-lkhlas Chapter 112 of theQur'an(Purity of Faith).
Al-Kafirun Chapter 109 of the Qur'an ( Those who reject Faith).
Al-Marwah name of the hillock where a Muslim begins Sa'yi.
Al-Raml walking quickly but with small steps during the first three circuits of Tawaf.
Arafah the most important stop during Hajj, located beyond Muzdalifah.
Ar-Ramy The Stoning.
As-Safaa name of the hillock where a Muslim ends his last lap of Sa'yi.
Asr the afternoon prayer.
Burqa' a face veil like a Niqab.
Dhul-Hijja the twelfth month of the Islamic calendar.
Dhuhr the noon prayer.
Eid celebration for Muslims.
Ezaar lower cloth of Ihram.
Fajr dawn prayer.
Hajj official Muslim pilgrimage to Makkah.
Hamza one of the Prophet's uncles and a martyr during the battle of Uhud.
Ifraad isolated form of Hajj.
Ihram the ceremonial state of making Hajj or the Hajj garments themselves.
Isha night prayer.
Jamrah Monument in Mina.
Jamrah Al Aqaba-the monument closest to Makkah.
Ka'bah the house of Allah in the Holy Mosque in Makkah.
Magrib dusk prayer.
Maqam Ibrahim the stepping stone of the prophet Abraham.
Mes'aa the stretch between As- Safaa and Al - Marwah.
Masha'ir ceremonial shrines.
Mina one of the ceremonial shrines, a valley near Makkah.
Muhammad the last of the prophets, the prophet of Islam.
Muhrim a person in Ihram.
Mutamati a pilgrim performing Hajj Tamattu'.
Muzdalifah one of the ceremonial shrines of Hajj, between
Mina and Arafah.
Namira mosque in Mina.
Niqab a face veil revealing the eyes through slashes
Qiran a pilgrim performing Hajj Qiran.
Qibla the direction Muslims face to pray.
Qiraan Accompanied form of Hajj.
Quba a mosque in Madina, used to be on the outskirts.
Qur'an the Book of Allah.
Rakaa a unit of prayer.
Reda' the upper cloth of Ihram.
Rukn Al Yamani-the corner of the Ka'bah which faces Yemen.
Sa'yi the walk made between As-Safaa and Al -Marwah.
Sunnah way of the Prophet.
Surah a chapter of the Qur'an.
Takbeer saying "Allahu Akbar ("Allah is Greatest")
Talbeeya the supplication a Muslim recites once he is in
Ihram and has made his intention.
Tamattu' enjoyable form of Hajj.
Tarwiyya the eighth of Dhul-Hijja.
Tawaf circumambulation of the Ka'bah
Tawaf Al-lfadha tawaf for Hajj.
Tawaf Al-Wadaa farewell Tawaf.
Uhud the name of a mountain in Medina and the site of the battle by this name.
Umar the second Muslim Caliph and first Prince of the believers.
Umrah-minor Hajj the combination of Tawaf and Sa'yi.
Uthman the third Muslim Caliph and second Prince of thebelievers.
Wudhu ablution.

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